Wilhelm Richard Wagner (* Mai in Leipzig; † Februar in Venedig) war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller. Hauptwerke. Übersicht über die Hauptwerke von Richard Wagner, welche regelmäßig bei den Bayreuther Festspielen aufgeführt werden. Der Ring des. Wilhelm Richard Wagner war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller, Theaterregisseur und Dirigent. Mit seinen Musikdramen gilt er als einer der bedeutendsten Erneuerer der europäischen Musik im Jahrhundert.
11 Dinge, die Sie über Wagner und Bayreuth wissen solltenUm Wagner im Nationalsozialismus geht es in der neuen Diskussionsreihe "Diskurs Bayreuth" im Richard Wagner Museum. Zum Thema. Wilhelm Richard Wagner war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller, Theaterregisseur und Dirigent. Mit seinen Musikdramen gilt er als einer der bedeutendsten Erneuerer der europäischen Musik im Jahrhundert. Wilhelm Richard Wagner (* Mai in Leipzig; † Februar in Venedig) war ein deutscher Komponist, Dramatiker, Dichter, Schriftsteller.
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You would like to refresh your walls and ceilings with colour or redesign them? Nevertheless, Wagner was in grim personal straits, isolated from the German musical world and without any regular income.
In , Julie, the wife of his friend Karl Ritter, began to pay him a small pension which she maintained until With help from her friend Jessie Laussot, this was to have been augmented to an annual sum of 3, Thalers per year; but this plan was abandoned when Wagner began an affair with Mme.
Wagner even planned an elopement with her in , which her husband prevented. Wagner fell victim to ill-health, according to Ernest Newman "largely a matter of overwrought nerves", which made it difficult for him to continue writing.
Wagner's primary published output during his first years in Zürich was a set of essays. In " The Artwork of the Future " , he described a vision of opera as Gesamtkunstwerk "total work of art" , in which the various arts such as music, song, dance, poetry, visual arts and stagecraft were unified.
According to him, they composed music to achieve popularity and, thereby, financial success, as opposed to creating genuine works of art.
In " Opera and Drama " , Wagner described the aesthetics of drama that he was using to create the Ring operas. Before leaving Dresden, Wagner had drafted a scenario that eventually became the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.
He initially wrote the libretto for a single opera, Siegfrieds Tod Siegfried's Death , in After arriving in Zürich, he expanded the story with the opera Der junge Siegfried Young Siegfried , which explored the hero's background.
He completed the text of the cycle by writing the libretti for Die Walküre The Valkyrie and Das Rheingold The Rhine Gold and revising the other libretti to agree with his new concept, completing them in Partly in an attempt to explain his change of views, Wagner published in the autobiographical " A Communication to My Friends ".
I shall never write an Opera more. As I have no wish to invent an arbitrary title for my works, I will call them Dramas I propose to produce my myth in three complete dramas, preceded by a lengthy Prelude Vorspiel.
At a specially-appointed Festival, I propose, some future time, to produce those three Dramas with their Prelude, in the course of three days and a fore-evening [emphasis in original].
Wagner began composing the music for Das Rheingold between November and September , following it immediately with Die Walküre written between June and March He decided to put the work aside to concentrate on a new idea: Tristan und Isolde ,  based on the Arthurian love story Tristan and Iseult.
One source of inspiration for Tristan und Isolde was the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer , notably his The World as Will and Representation , to which Wagner had been introduced in by his poet friend Georg Herwegh.
Wagner later called this the most important event of his life. He remained an adherent of Schopenhauer for the rest of his life.
One of Schopenhauer's doctrines was that music held a supreme role in the arts as a direct expression of the world's essence, namely, blind, impulsive will.
Wagner scholars have argued that Schopenhauer's influence caused Wagner to assign a more commanding role to music in his later operas, including the latter half of the Ring cycle, which he had yet to compose.
A second source of inspiration was Wagner's infatuation with the poet-writer Mathilde Wesendonck , the wife of the silk merchant Otto Wesendonck.
Wagner met the Wesendoncks, who were both great admirers of his music, in Zürich in From May onwards Wesendonck made several loans to Wagner to finance his household expenses in Zürich,  and in placed a cottage on his estate at Wagner's disposal,  which became known as the Asyl "asylum" or "place of rest".
During this period, Wagner's growing passion for his patron's wife inspired him to put aside work on the Ring cycle which was not resumed for the next twelve years and begin work on Tristan.
Two of these settings are explicitly subtitled by Wagner as "studies for Tristan und Isolde ". Amongst the conducting engagements that Wagner undertook for revenue during this period, he gave several concerts in with the Philharmonic Society of London , including one before Queen Victoria.
Wagner's uneasy affair with Mathilde collapsed in , when Minna intercepted a letter to Mathilde from him. In an letter to Mathilde, Wagner wrote, half-satirically, of Tristan : "Child!
This Tristan is turning into something terrible. This final act!!! Perfectly good ones will be bound to drive people mad. In November , Wagner once again moved to Paris to oversee production of a new revision of Tannhäuser , staged thanks to the efforts of Princess Pauline von Metternich , whose husband was the Austrian ambassador in Paris.
The performances of the Paris Tannhäuser in were a notable fiasco. This was partly a consequence of the conservative tastes of the Jockey Club , which organised demonstrations in the theatre to protest at the presentation of the ballet feature in act 1 instead of its traditional location in the second act ; but the opportunity was also exploited by those who wanted to use the occasion as a veiled political protest against the pro-Austrian policies of Napoleon III.
The political ban that had been placed on Wagner in Germany after he had fled Dresden was fully lifted in The composer settled in Biebrich , on the Rhine near Wiesbaden in Hesse.
Wagner wrote a first draft of the libretto in ,  and he had resolved to develop it during a visit he had made to Venice with the Wesendoncks in , where he was inspired by Titian 's painting The Assumption of the Virgin.
Wagner's fortunes took a dramatic upturn in , when King Ludwig II succeeded to the throne of Bavaria at the age of The young king, an ardent admirer of Wagner's operas, had the composer brought to Munich.
After grave difficulties in rehearsal, Tristan und Isolde premiered at the National Theatre Munich on 10 June , the first Wagner opera premiere in almost 15 years.
The premiere had been scheduled for 15 May, but was delayed by bailiffs acting for Wagner's creditors,  and also because the Isolde, Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld , was hoarse and needed time to recover.
The conductor of this premiere was Hans von Bülow , whose wife, Cosima , had given birth in April that year to a daughter, named Isolde, a child not of Bülow but of Wagner.
Cosima was 24 years younger than Wagner and was herself illegitimate, the daughter of the Countess Marie d'Agoult , who had left her husband for Franz Liszt.
Minna had died of a heart attack on 25 January in Dresden. Wagner did not attend the funeral. He consented only after she had two more children with Wagner; another daughter, named Eva, after the heroine of Meistersinger , and a son Siegfried , named for the hero of the Ring.
The divorce was finally sanctioned, after delays in the legal process, by a Berlin court on 18 July Wagner, settled into his new-found domesticity, turned his energies towards completing the Ring cycle.
He had not abandoned polemics: he republished his pamphlet "Judaism in Music", originally issued under a pseudonym, under his own name in He extended the introduction, and wrote a lengthy additional final section.
The publication led to several public protests at early performances of Die Meistersinger in Vienna and Mannheim.
In , Wagner decided to move to Bayreuth , which was to be the location of his new opera house. The Wagners moved to the town the following year, and the foundation stone for the Bayreuth Festspielhaus "Festival Theatre" was laid.
Wagner initially announced the first Bayreuth Festival, at which for the first time the Ring cycle would be presented complete, for ,  but since Ludwig had declined to finance the project, the start of building was delayed and the proposed date for the festival was deferred.
To raise funds for the construction, " Wagner societies " were formed in several cities,  and Wagner began touring Germany conducting concerts.
Commenting on the struggle to finish the building, Wagner remarked to Cosima: "Each stone is red with my blood and yours".
For the design of the Festspielhaus, Wagner appropriated some of the ideas of his former colleague, Gottfried Semper, which he had previously solicited for a proposed new opera house at Munich.
The Festspielhaus finally opened on 13 August with Das Rheingold , at last taking its place as the first evening of the complete Ring cycle; the Bayreuth Festival therefore saw the premiere of the complete cycle, performed as a sequence as the composer had intended.
Wagner was far from satisfied with the Festival; Cosima recorded that months later, his attitude towards the productions was "Never again, never again!
Following the first Bayreuth Festival, Wagner began work on Parsifal , his final opera. The composition took four years, much of which Wagner spent in Italy for health reasons.
He was once again assisted by the liberality of King Ludwig, but was still forced by his personal financial situation in to sell the rights of several of his unpublished works including the Siegfried Idyll to the publisher Schott.
Wagner wrote a number of articles in his later years, often on political topics, and often reactionary in tone, repudiating some of his earlier, more liberal, views.
These include "Religion and Art" and "Heroism and Christianity" , which were printed in the journal Bayreuther Blätter , published by his supporter Hans von Wolzogen.
Wagner completed Parsifal in January , and a second Bayreuth Festival was held for the new opera, which premiered on 26 May. After the festival, the Wagner family journeyed to Venice for the winter.
Wagner died of a heart attack at the age of 69 on 13 February at Ca' Vendramin Calergi , a 16th-century palazzo on the Grand Canal.
Wagner's musical output is listed by the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis WWV as comprising works, including fragments and projects.
It will consist of 21 volumes 57 books of music and 10 volumes 13 books of relevant documents and texts. As at October , three volumes remain to be published.
The publisher is Schott Music. Wagner's operatic works are his primary artistic legacy. Unlike most opera composers, who generally left the task of writing the libretto the text and lyrics to others, Wagner wrote his own libretti, which he referred to as "poems".
From onwards, he urged a new concept of opera often referred to as "music drama" although he later rejected this term ,  [n 14] in which all musical, poetic and dramatic elements were to be fused together—the Gesamtkunstwerk.
Wagner developed a compositional style in which the importance of the orchestra is equal to that of the singers.
The orchestra's dramatic role in the later operas includes the use of leitmotifs , musical phrases that can be interpreted as announcing specific characters, locales, and plot elements; their complex interweaving and evolution illuminates the progression of the drama.
Wagner's earliest attempts at opera were often uncompleted. Die Feen The Fairies , was not performed in the composer's lifetime  and Das Liebesverbot The Ban on Love , was withdrawn after its first performance.
Later in life, Wagner said that he did not consider these works to be part of his oeuvre ;  and they have been performed only rarely in the last hundred years, although the overture to Rienzi is an occasional concert-hall piece.
Die Feen , Das Liebesverbot , and Rienzi were performed at both Leipzig and Bayreuth in to mark the composer's bicentenary. Wagner's middle stage output began with Der fliegende Holländer The Flying Dutchman , , followed by Tannhäuser and Lohengrin Learn more.
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